求人不如求己

2009/11/29

年初,美國通用汽車進入破產程序。《經濟學人》專欄Lexington詳述汽車製造業的藍領工人長達二三十年的沒落過程。

二戰後,歐洲日本忙於重建,沒餘力發展工業,美國製造業一支獨秀雄據世界。汽車製造需要大量勞工,通用汽車便以優厚福利吸引高中畢業生。五十年代,汽車工人收入足以養家置業,享受頂級醫療福利,工作三十載便可退休食長糧。

於是,許多青年加入汽車業,他們對日後的豐足生活充滿憧憬。至八九十年代,歐日汽車製造業興起,美國受到挑戰。汽車銷量下降,直接影嚮工人飯碗。然而,龐大的工人代表龐大的選票,歷任美國總統和參眾議員不得不照顧這個龐大的群體,短視地傾斜政策以保護美國汽車業的短期利益。這樣的保護主義卻使汽車業浸淫在一趟溫水裏,當政府能滿足所求,它就缺乏了改善自身的動力。今天美國車的性能不如歐日,曾經雄霸一時的通用汽車亦被淹沒於金融海嘯裏。

現在,來代入名詞,把汽車廠換作香港,工人換作大學生,故事又是否似曾相識?

曾幾何時香港的大學生十分吃香,週邊地區沒有出產幾多大學生跟香港人爭食,在學時可專心參加學生活動,書可以不諗,課可以不上,反正八九十年代去殖民化時,大學畢業生的工作機會多的是。

不過,這已成往事。週邊地區興起,高等教育普及化,大學生們卻仍然憧憬將來跟前人的一樣美好,當與事實相違時,這就變成集體訴求,也就出現一些靠訴求生存的政客。社會上總有種呼聲,要求政府做這做那、創造職位。早前立法會的施政報告辯論,有議員指展趐毅進計劃對青少年毫無幫助,政府好應該為青年人提供前景、穩定的上升階梯。去年當政府推出補貼計劃,支持企業以四千蚊月薪聘用大學生當暑期工,竟然有人指這是悔辱性的工資,貶低大學生專嚴。

週邊地區的愈來愈強的挑戰已成事實,政府根本做不了甚麼。若硬要向大學生多施援手,那跟八十年代美國的保護政策無異。希望政府幫助的大學生,請問,又是否想靠政府吊著廿年鹽水,等若干年後,當其他地方的大學生的能力視野都遠勝我們,才驀然發覺自己落入中年危機,如今日的美國汽車工人,只能乞求政府打救,嘆往日之不可追?

(刊於同日《香港經濟日報》)

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25 回應 to “求人不如求己”

  1. John Says:

    嘩!出篇咁爛既嘢上報呀大佬!
    美國政府仍要向選民(選票)賣帳, 香港政府何嘗向大學生賣帳? 兩件事
    本質相差太大,比較根本無從說起
    再講,未有八間(?)大學前一年有幾多大學畢業生, 之後又有幾多? 週邊地區大學生既影響一定比本地大學生陪增細
    只可講意念良好, 但完全抓不到問題重心

  2. Justin Says:

    小弟花了很多心機寫這篇文,無奈才疏學淺,才得出這篇「爛野」。

    如果香港政府完全無需賣帳,就不會出現一系列「協助大學生就業」的政策。

    閣下指週邊地區大學生的影嚮比本地學生倍增的問題細,我不同意。

    我現身在美國,很多內地同學勤力聰穎,也具國際視野,中英文極好。他們均以香港為畢業後工作地區首選。也認識一些大機構的主管,他們說很多時候偏好選內地學生。他們正跟我們爭食。這是近十年中國小部份人富起來才出現的現象。

    請問認為問題重心在哪?還請閣下賜教。

  3. John Says:

    在兩間大學年代, 大學生是天之驕子, 放洋留學者更少之又少. 那是精英教育年代, 那年代的本地大學生是質數的保證, 同今天本地大學那種量產形根本完全不是那回事, 七+年代中學畢業已經叫幾好學歴, 八+年代中學畢業勉強可以做白領職員仔, 九+年代中學畢業就已幾冇乜運行. 我唔係話外來人冇争食, 但問題重心在於學歴一直在depreciate
    而學歴depreciation在全世界都在發生.

    求人不如求己,當然用心良苦;但清楚自身定位,比求己更重要. 對於一少部份人,求己可以作為向上爬既推動力.但平凡的大多數受先後天所限,求己,很多時只是求不到

    置於「協助大學生就業」4k一個月那種唔知想明益商家定好心幫倒忙既無腦笑話政策,如果咁樣叫賣帳,大家對賣帳定義分別太大, 就如美國政府對選民"賣帳"同香港政府對選民"賣帳"之分制

  4. Random Coil Says:

    Your entry reminds me of something I observed when I was an instructor back home…

    Somehow, the local students all want to stay in hk eventhough there are opportunities away from home. They don’t even want to work in China.

    I guess if these students don’t want to go to places with opportunities and rather starve and whine at home, no one can really help them… no one really… no one should.

  5. kklo Says:

    有能力意識到大鑊已經難得,周邊發生乜事,通常香港人都係一無所知。世界觀唔同,取向與選擇亦唔同

    4K 那個計劃是一半搵笨加一半善意,內地實習那部份其實不錯,今年珠三角畢業生普遍工資大約只是 2K 多,而且亦比無端白事直接跑上去搵工易得多

    當然仍是那句,每個人有其自己的包袱,不少人屋企等住佢養,亦有人仲要供細佬妹讀書,有條件可以任性已經是很幸福

  6. Random Coil Says:

    About ‘內地實習’…

    I am not optimistic about the implementation and also the response from the local students.

    The school (in engineering department) I worked for, like all those universiteis in hk, has internship scheme for students to work in china for summer… For the past few years, the number of applications are always fewer than the positions available…

    I can see that yes, the salary is not good… but the thing is even for those that can AFFORD the monetary sacrifices, they don’t see that the internship is a chance for them to make connections and actually apply what they have learnt from school…

    I really have no idea what has gone wrong. Or may be there is nothing wrong… just I am too old to understand this generation of college students.

    • kklo Says:

      你都識講,they don’t “see" that

      一個一般學生由細到大所被灌輸的世界,與現實環境是有出入。要佢地自覺地意識到這份差距, 就好似要個北韓人自覺地質疑金氏父子的偉大救恩

      有人也說,第五代香港人,就是什麼都不喜歡,亦什麼都不知道的

  7. Sam Says:

    @ Justin: This is actually very well written. Hong Kongers are definitely no longer the first choice for many MNCs, investment banks and consulting firms.

    May I ask, what practical steps do you recommend so we all can improve our competitive edge?

    @ John, I totally see your point. We are always co-creating the world around us. Maybe you don’t feel you are being fairly treated. Maybe that’s true, but your happiness & positive life outcome are so important YOU MUST TAKE IT INTO YOUR OWN HANDS.

    http://www.vanityhk.com/2009/11/blog-post_18.html

    • Justin Says:

      I have no clue what practical things can be done. Even I am not sure if what I am doing is the best.

      But I think, at least, we should bare in mind that, things now we hong kong people enjoying is not granted. Life is not easy, and we need to fight hard for a good life.

      • Sam Says:

        Agree on the life is not easy part. Things I can think of that we “4th generation Hong Kongers" can do:
        (1) Learn Mandarin – like business, proper mandarin.
        (2) Take some meaningful continuing education classes – CFA/MA/MScs/MBAs etc. Not that it will automatically get you a good job, it will open up some new opportunities and keep you competitive, especially when everyone in China and India is doing it!
        (3) Learn public speaking. We can always use a little bit of charm, charisma and influence.

  8. Justin Says:

    John:
    關於你指平凡人大多受先天所限,求己未必求到。我覺得,就算求不到,也千萬要記住,搵政府幫係一個last resort,幫慣左,一旦冇左政府,就會大檸樂。

    Random Coil:
    I am thinking about this question too. Seems like here in America, people are used to work at least hundreds miles away from home. Not that they get an extremely good job from a place far from home, just that they are used to it. Many of my american classmates need to fly few hours to home for thanksgiving.

    Whilst in HK, seems like working aboard is a big big thing, and unless the job offer is very good, people usually reluctant to move. Even for myself, after getting an offer from my current sch, there was a few moment that I was reluctant to move.

    HK people at this moment should realize how much competition we are facing nowadays. Seeking help from the government is not a solution.

    KK:
    I agree that not everyone has the luxury to be 任性。

    I am sure I am a very very lucky one.

    But still, on the other hand, whenever some politicians says that they can fight with the gov for some help, beware of that.

  9. 黑人 Says:

    政府不一定是last resort
    因為有一部份人的訴求極端民粹,連本來合理的訴求都被歸邊

    電影業講左好耐要政府拆牆鬆綁,因為拍外境十問九唔批,拍batman就可以封半個中環,呢d事無得求自己。

    香港年輕人,要拍電影、搞舞台劇、做職業運動員,都要靠政府配合或津貼,尤其運動員的器材場地以至生計都係,人地世界級教練全職練波,你練波之餘仲要渣van仔教游水,練習又book唔到場,一定唔夠人打

    之前有個東亞運動會特輯,主持話香港政府一向支持全民運動,聽完笑左

  10. 婉兒 Says:

    之前有個東亞運動會特輯,主持話香港政府一向支持全民運動,聽完笑左 x2

    英國都會有幫助青少年就業(其實是創造)的計畫,工種多是修車一類。計畫反而行得不錯,可能是跟上大學的男女比例有關係吧。我爸去修車都是年輕人修的,始終很多本地人都有一種「何必一定上大學,出路多的是」的心態吧。

    • shumc Says:

      「何必一定上大學,出路多的是」這種心態在中國人的社會不太可能看見。很多人還停留在有科舉的年代,男兒需寒窗苦讀,考取功名利祿,光宗耀粗。事實上社會是迫人這樣做,因為現時新入行做修車的不見得一定能養家活兒。狗屁知識型經濟。

      • 婉兒 Says:

        所以我不明白了,社會固然需要專業人士,但不也同樣需要體力勞動的工作嗎?人人都是高上階層,有誰來修坐駕?

  11. Geoffrey Says:

    外國社會不會帶有色眼鏡看待體力勞動的工作,也對這些工種提供不俗的薪酬和保障,所以就業出路不會像香港般,局限於某幾個行業才會有好一點的出路。

    另致Justin:「照顧這個龐大的群體」祇是你眼看得到的,眼看不到的是汽車業高層背後的游說和他們的政治捐獻,以至汽車業一垮台對經濟其他方面的牽連,所以美國政府撐汽車業是有更深層考慮。可是汽車業得到資助後卻不思長進,又是否祇是工人的錯?你可以說工人因循茍且,但最能夠推動行業升級的高層又何嘗不是?(很多重大決定都要經高層決策後才可實行。)對照香港的情況,政府政策和大環境一向business friendly(特別是大型企業),但商界人人都追求短期回報,產業既無升級或多樣化,香港大學生覺得出路狹窄,或多或少與此有關。


  12. […] Posted in Misc at 2:29 pm by Random Coil This poll is inspired by Justin’s 求人不如求己. […]

  13. Random Coil Says:

    Well… Hong Kong has changed a lot since a lot of us have left the place… do you guys plan to return?

    http://boundaryinterfaces.wordpress.com/2009/12/06/do-you-want-to-return-to-hk-poll/

  14. Says:

    Re:婉兒

    外勞

    君不見做地盤的變了南亞人士?

  15. Justin Says:

    Sam:
    (1) and (3) are good.

    But I am not sure about (2), coz there are too many of them right now, these degrees become another kind of university graduates.

    黑人:

    諗左一段時間,我覺得應該咁講。要政府幫助唔太係問題。以科研為例,只有政府才能應付回報期長達幾十年的項目,(當然,少數機構如microsoft和ibm等,都有咁既能力)。不過,受資助的人,一定要記住這些資助不一定係必然的,有種種原因可以令到這些資助不再。受資助的,必需考慮到,一旦失去政府時,自己應該點樣生存。

    婉兒,shumc:
    同意。我覺得香港社會就係覺得唔讀大學就係死路一條(雖然,今時今日,香港地冇張大學畢業證書真係好麻煩)。但於我而言,更大既問題係,好多人以為讀左大學就會飛黃騰達(四十年前可能係,但而家一定唔係囉),所以就會出現左咁多大學生對政府要協助就業等等等等的訴求。

    Geoffrey:
    我同意你的講法。其實寫這篇文時,我覺得(汽車工人大學生)的類比不是最貼切,因為這是整個美國汽車業的不思進取而導致的問題,汽車工人is not the only one to blame。

    商界短視,我也同意。賣磚頭就可以發達真係好唔合理,我覺得大學生的目光仍然可以放遠些少,雖然,實際上,我唔知應該點做。

    Random Coil:
    I am still thinking about returning to South East Asia, but dun hv any plan yet.

    • kklo Says:

      >>好多人以為讀左大學就會飛黃騰達
      所以先成日講依個係天仙局,一般學生無論家庭學校定社會都係呃呃氹氹叫佢地讀好d 書,俾佢地存在一個咁嘅幻想

      讀書有成本,唔係個個佢志趣同實質上讀嘅野重疊。我地果代而經算好,依家依代,未入小學已經十項全能,上到中一已經話要補課,功課一大堆。以前我讀中學果時都叫有時間扮下野讀下 Classics ﹐自問出世遲幾年真係未必做到。到 12 萬人中爭到萬五個學位,O-day 又聽人講「講依科出路好廣ga…」,loan 又要借,而最後發覺結局係另一回事。有怨氣好正常wor

      • Random Coil Says:

        呃呃氹氹?

        My problem is why they are so easily FOOLED?

        If they pay some attention on what is going on around them, they SHOULD know that studying/getting a degree is a necessary but NOT sufficient condition for a decent job these days.

      • kklo Says:

        被洗腦嘅人邊有咁清醒,你去全港學校,問學生兩條問題︰

        一、讀書重唔重要?
        二、你為乜要讀書?

        你睇下有幾多個唔係答標準答案 …

        “why they are so easily FOOLED?" 有時是與信念有關。早陣子與友人說「香港攪 d 工程成日都貴一截,點會真係咁乾淨」,俾人回敬了句「對ICAC 有信心」。Well.. “If they pay some attention, they should know" 香港政府大把利益輸送。香港人受慣清廉信念洗腦,不要問,只要信

  16. Random Coil Says:

    Hi kklo,
    About 被洗腦嘅人…

    I was talking to my former boss a few days back about education in hk. We were discussing what exactly we should teach students…

    At the end of the day, it is not how well they can derivate equations, or how well they can write software… but to have a critical mind…

  17. Says:

    Random coil:

    政府應該最怕市民有critical mind…


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